Final regulations reflect the significant changes that the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) ( P.L. 115-97) made to the Code Sec. 274 deduction for travel and entertainment expenses. These regulations finalize, with some changes, previously released proposed regulations, NPRM REG-100814-19.
Changes to Code Sec. 274 under the TCJA
For most expenses paid or incurred after 2017, TCJA:
- repealed the “directly related to a trade or business” and the business-discussion exceptions to the general disallowance of entertainment expense deductions;
- eliminated the general business expense deduction for 50 percent of entertainment (but not meal) expenses; and
- repealed the special substantiation rules for deductible entertainment (but not travel) expenses. Taxpayers may rely on the proposed regulations until they are finalized.
Among other things, Reg. §1.274-11:
- restates the statutory rules of Code Sec. 274(a), including the entertainment deduction disallowance rule for dues or fees to any social, athletic, or sporting club or organization;
- substantially incorporates the existing definition of “entertainment” from Reg. §1.274-2(b)(1); and
- confirms that the nine exceptions in Code Sec. 274(e) continue to apply to deductible entertainment expenditures.
The regulations also confirm that “entertainment” does not include food or beverages unless they are provided at or during an entertainment activity, and their costs are included in the entertainment costs.
Food and Beverage Expenses
As under the proposed regulations, Reg. §1.274-12 allows taxpayers to deduct 50 percent of business meal expenses if:
- the expense is an ordinary and necessary business expense;
- the expense is not lavish or extravagant; the taxpayer or an employee is present when the food or beverage is furnished;
- the food or beverage is provided to a current or potential business customer, client, consultant, or similar business contact; and
- food and beverages that are provided during or at an entertainment activity are purchased separately from the entertainment, or their cost is separately stated.
With respect to the fourth requirement listed above, the final regulations adopt the definition of “business associate” in Reg. §1.274-2(b)(2)(iii), but expands it to include employees. Thus, these requirements would apply to employer-provided meals to employees as well as non-employees. The final regulations also flesh out the fifth requirement listed above, and clarify that the separate charges for entertainment-related food and beverages must reflect their actual cost, including delivery fees, tips, and sales tax. Indirect expenses such as transportation to the food are not included in the actual cost.
Exceptions and Special Rules
Food or beverage expenses for employer-provided meals at an eating facility do not include expenses for the operation of the facility, such as salaries of employees preparing and serving meals, and other overhead costs. The final regulations apply the TCJA changes to the exceptions and special rules for deductible food and beverages in Code Sec. 274(e), Code Sec. 274(k) and Code Sec. 274(n), including:
- reimbursed food or beverage expenses;
- recreational expenses for employees;
- items available to the public; and
- goods or services sold to customers.
The final regulations also provide examples on several specific scenarios to illustrate the rules.