The Departments of the Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services (the Departments), have issued interim final rules and identical proposed regulations to implement provisions of the No Surprises Act. On December 27, 2020, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (CAA), which included the No Surprises Act, was signed into law. The No Surprises Act provides federal protections against surprise billing and limits out-of-network cost sharing under many of the circumstances in which surprise bills arise most frequently. The regulations are generally applicable for plan years (in the individual market, policy years) beginning on or after January 1, 2022.

Application of No Surprises Rules
The interim and proposed Treasury regulations implement the rules under the new Code Sec. 9816 regarding the prevention of surprise medical bills, Code Sec. 9817 regarding surprise ambulance bills, and Code Sec. 9822 regarding the choice of health care professional. The regulations apply to group health plans, including grandfathered plans. They do not apply to excepted benefits, short-term, limited-duration insurance, or health reimbursement arrangements or other account-based group health plans.

The interim regulations also include largely overlapping HHS and DOL regulations that apply to health insurance issuers offering group or individual health insurance coverage, and carriers in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Act (FEHB) Program to provide protections against balance billing and out-of-network cost sharing with respect to emergency services, non-emergency services furnished by nonparticipating providers at certain participating health care facilities, and air ambulance services furnished by nonparticipating providers of air ambulance services.

The new regulations prohibit nonparticipating providers, health care facilities, and providers of air ambulance services from balance billing participants, beneficiaries, and enrollees in certain situations, and permit these providers and facilities to balance bill individuals if certain notice and consent requirements in the No Surprises Act are satisfied. They also require certain health care facilities and providers to provide disclosures of federal and state patient protections against balance billing.

The regulations recodify certain patient protections that initially appeared in the Affordable Care Act and provide that the No Surprises Act applies to grandfathered plans. They also set forth complaints processes with respect to violations of the protections against balance billing and out-of-network cost sharing under the No Surprises Act.

These new rules protect individuals from surprise medical bills for emergency services, air ambulance services furnished by nonparticipating providers, and non-emergency services furnished by nonparticipating providers at participating facilities in certain circumstances. Among other requirements, they require emergency services to be covered without any prior authorization, without regard to whether the health care provider furnishing the emergency services is a participating provider or a participating emergency facility with respect to the services, and without regard to any other term or condition of the plan or coverage other than the exclusion or coordination of benefits or a permitted affiliation or waiting period.

Additionally, emergency services include certain services in an emergency department of a hospital or an independent freestanding emergency department, as well as post-stabilization services in certain instances.

Effective Dates and Comments
The regulations are generally applicable for plan years (in the individual market, policy years) beginning on or after January 1, 2022. However, the HHS-only regulations that apply to health care providers, facilities, and providers of air ambulance services are applicable beginning on January 1, 2022. The OPM-only regulations that apply to health benefits plans are applicable to contract years beginning on or after January 1, 2022.

Comments must be received no later than 5 p.m. on September 7, 2021. Comments, including mass comment submissions, must be submitted in one of the following three ways: electronically at https://www.regulations.gov by entering the file code in the search window and then clicking on “Comment”; by regular mail to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Department of Health and Human Services, Attention: CMS-9909-IFC, P.O. Box 8016, Baltimore, MD 21244-8016; or by express or overnight mail to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Department of Health and Human Services, Attention: CMS-9909-IFC, Mail Stop C4-26-05, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21244-1850.